They affect the neurotransmitter acetylcholine or the components of the nervous system that use acetylcholine which is a facilitator of memory formation. Cognitive functions in the brain are improved by increasing the availability of this neurotransmitter.
Cholinergic nootropics include acetylcholine precursors and cofactors, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.
- Choline – precursor of acetylcholine and phosphatidylcholine
- DMAE – precursor of acetylcholine
- Meclofenoxate – probable precursor of acetylcholine, approved for Dementia and Alzheimer’s,
- Alpha-GPC – thought to be the only cholinergic that delivers choline to the brain across the blood–brain barrier; sold under its chemical name.
- Acetyl-carnitine – amino acid that functions in acetylcholine production by donating the acetyl portion to the acetylcholine molecule
- Vitamin B5 – cofactor in the conversion of choline into acetylcholine
3. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors
Galantamine, Lycoris radiata, Huperzine A, Donepezil, Rosemary,Sage, Cannabis.
4. Reuptake inhibitors and enhancers
Coluracetam, Ginsenosides Source
Ispronicline, Nicotine, Arecoline
The GABA α5 receptor site has recently displayed memory improvements when inverse agonized.
The significant memory improvement and possible alertness enhancement has been seen when AMPA transmitter and the AMPA receptors are agonized. The drug class for AMPA system modulation is called Ampakines.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate is a secondary messenger that, if increased, has shown memory improvements. One common method is by decreasing the activity of phosphodiesterase-4, an enzyme that breaks down cAMP.
Typical effects include wakefulness and memory enhancement.